Saturday, January 23, 2016


Picture based on the Shroud of Turin and Veil of Manoppello



Objectives; By the end of this Module you should;

  • Know about the Resurrection of the Son of God, Jesus Christ
  • Have knowledge about the archeological and scientific evidence afforded by the burial cloths of Jesus
  • Understand the importance of the Resurrection for global, eternal and spiritual history
  • Be able to preach about the Resurrection


The Resurrection of the Son of God
1.   The Burial Cloths of Jesus
2.   Evidence of the Resurrection
3.   Type AB Blood
4.   Superimposition of Three Cloths Coincide Exactly
5.   Veil of Manoppello or 'Volto Santo'
6.   The Disciples Believed
7.   The Burial Cloths themselves; the Facts
8.   Shroud of Turin
9.   Photographic Negative
10. Jerusalem

1. The Burial Cloths of Jesus
  Archeological and scientific evidence of the Death and Resurrection still exist.

  John tells us in his gospel eyewitness account that the burial cloths of Jesus lay in the empty tomb.
  Early on the first day of the Jewish week, Sunday, Mary Magdalene went to grieve at the tomb. It was still dark. [John 20;1].
  Jesus had died through crucifixion and the death was verified by the piercing of His Heart by a spear.
  Experienced guards were posted at the tomb, and the tomb was sealed. This was in order that the Body of Jesus could not be stolen by disciples and a false claim of Resurrection made. 
[Matthew 27; 62-66]. 

  When Mary arrived at the tomb, she saw that the sealings on the stone had been burst and the heavy burial stone had been removed from the entrance. 
  Mary realised that the Body of Jesus was gone, and she ran to Simon Peter and John to tell them that Jesus' Corpse had been taken from the tomb, and she didn't know where the Body had been laid. [John 20;2].

  Peter and John ran to the tomb. John arrived first, and bent over to look into the tomb. He did not go in, but looked at the strips of burial linen lying there. 
  Simon Peter came along behind him, and went straight into the tomb.
  Simon Peter saw the strips of linen lying there, as well as the cloth that had been wrapped around Jesus' Head. The latter cloth was still lying in its place, separate from the linen.
  Finally John also went inside the tomb. He saw [the linen] and believed. [John 20;3-8].

2. Evidence of the Resurrection
  What John saw - as did Peter - was clear scientific evidence of the Resurrection on the cloths that Jesus had been buried in.
  During the Resurrection Process, Jesus' battered Face and Form in His deceased state had imprinted with some characteristics of a photographic negative on the long shroud in which He was finally laid to rest.
  This large cloth is the Shroud which today resides in Turin.

Even more startling, as Jesus resurrected and came back to life, His Face and opened Eyes imprinted on the translucent facial burial Veil of mussel silk or byssus.
  This Veil resides at present in Manoppello.
  When the open eyed Face of the Resurrecting Jesus is superimposed upon the Face of the Image on the Shroud of Turin, both Images match perfectly.

  There is the third cloth - probably that which was placed on the Face of Jesus as He was being taken down from the Cross.
  This is the Sudarium, the cloth that Peter and John saw lying apart.
The cloth that had been on Jesus Head is the cloth now residing in Oviedo; known as the Sudarium of Oviedo.

3. Type AB Blood
  Type AB Blood has been found on both the Shroud of Turin and the Sudarium of Oviedo.
  The blood on both cloths belongs to the same group, namely AB+ [AB Positive]. [1] and [2]
  This was discovered when forensic tests were carried out on both Sudarium and Shroud during the 1980's.
  The AB blood type is a rare one, reportedly found in just 3.4% of the global population. [3] and [4]
  People with AB + blood are potential universal plasma donors.
In addition to being the most rare blood type, AB Plasma is universal and can be used for all patients regardless of their blood type. [4]

4. Superimposition of Three Cloths Coincide Exactly
  When the Face of the Image on the Veil of Manoppello is superimposed on that of the Shroud of Turin, the Face corresponds exactly. [5]
  When the Image and bloodstains on the Shroud are compared to that of the Oviedo Sudarium, they match exactly.
  Dr Alan Whanger applied the Polarized Image Overlay Technique to the Sudarium, comparing it to the Image and bloodstains on the Shroud.
  The frontal stains on the Sudarium show seventy points of coincidence with the Shroud, and the rear side shows fifty.
  The only possible conclusion is that the Oviedo Sudarium covered the same Face as the Turin Shroud. [1]

5. Veil of Manoppello or 'Volto Santo'
  The Veil - also known as the Volto Santo - shows the Face of a Man with open eyes and the mouth slightly open.
  His Face is peaceful, almost as if waking from sleep. [6]
It is said that the mouth is opening almost as if on the first syllable of the word 'Abba' [Jesus' Name for GOD]. 
  This belief stems from local tradition.

  The Face has long hair, beard and mustache with a long nose.
The nasal cartilage appears to have been broken. 
  The features are dark red, and appear beaten and swollen. 
 Both Images - superimposed Image of the Veil over that of the Shroud of Turin - show tufts of hair on the forehead.
  The Veil itself is 17.5cm wide and 24 cm high.
The Face is visible from both sides of the cloth. The cloth itself is so fine that it appears transparent.
  This delicate Veil is made of byssus cloth. Byssus - also known as sea silk or mussel silk, is a rare and delicate fabric woven from a silky filament produced by molluscs.
  The knowledge of byssus making is an ancient one; the last person at present still able to make byssus is Chiara Vigo of Sant' Antioco.

   Byssus is mentioned on the Rosetta stone, and is said to have been found in the tombs of Pharoahs.
  Some believe it was the cloth GOD told Moses to lay on the first altar.
  It was the finest fabric known to ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome.
  One of its remarkable properties is the way it shines when exposed to the sun, once it has been treated with lemon juice and spices.
  The raw material is the silky filament of a large clam, known as Pinna nobilis.
  The skill of byssus weaving was brought to Sant' Antioca by Princess Berenice, great-granddaughter of King Herod, during the latter half of the first century. [7]

6. The Disciples Believed
  When Peter and John saw the linen cloths and the burial veil, suddenly all became clear. 
  The words of Jesus had come to pass. He had indeed risen after three days in the tomb.
  He thus showed that He was indeed the Son of GOD Who has power over both life and death.
  The Promises made by Jesus on behalf of GOD the Father were thus proven trustworthy.
  The way had been paved for the disciples to believe that the miraculous Resurrection had taken place; they had the visual evidence before their own eyes.

  In the first morning light that penetrated through the entrance of the tomb, John saw in the shimmering mussel silk the first traces of the countenance of the Lord Who had been put to death.
  But now the Face appeared in a healing state, the tears dried, still with swelling from the Friday but completely at peace with no trace of vengeance. Alive.
  When he saw the imprint of the Beloved Face on the linen, John had to believe. The evidence of his own eyes impelled him to.

  Prime witness of the undeniable death of Jesus and the final thrust of a spear through the heart, John had become a chief witness to the Resurrection of Jesus.
  And, at last, all the teachings of Jesus fell into place; and became clearly understandable in the light of the shimmering byssus. [8]

  The promises of immortality; of an eternal future with no sorrow, no pain and no death promised by Jesus; it is all true.

7. The Burial Cloths themselves; the Facts
  The Shroud shows Jesus of Nazareth as the Corpse of a tortured Man with severe wounds, and the Veil shows Him healing and living.
  The Shroud shows no sign of color or pigment.  Scientists believe that the color of the Veil originated by an unknown process within the fibers.
  The gradient of the Veil is completely seamless and the Image is not painted.
  In some areas of the Image - such as in the pupils - pigments have been found. These are thought to have been added by a medieval painter in order to refresh the color. [6]

  The Image was not applied before weaving the fibers. If that had been the case, all fibers would have been individually colored before the weaving process started. This is considered impossible to achieve.
  In some lighting, the color shade can be found on both warp and weft of the threads.
  The Veil Image has a 3-dimensional effect which is dependant on the type of lighting and the position of the viewer [local and spiritually].  
  The Veil Image is equally visible from front and back, with the exact shades of color. [6]

8. Shroud of Turin
  Measuring 435cm x 110cm, the Shroud of Turin is a large linen cloth with traces of blood, water stains and holes [caused by a fire in the Chapel of the Palace in Chambéry in 1532].

  The double Image - [fore and back] - of a bearded naked Man, Who, after His Death, was placed on the right hand side of the long cloth before being covered with the left  hand side - can be seen on the cloth.
  The Man bears wounds on wrists, feet, head, chest, back, legs and feet.
  The right cheek is swollen. The nose appears to be broken.
Approximately eighty ferocious whip lashes have cut the body. Massive nails have bored through both wrists and feet, a spear has lanced the right side.
  Blood flowed from the hair down His Forehead and the back of the Head. [9]
  The tortured Man's right shoulder has a broad excoriated area in the outer part of the sub-scapular region. This is in the form of a rectangle of about 10 x 9 centimeters.
  In the frontal Image this area extends forwards into the outer clavicular region with with broad patches of excoriation. 
  The shoulders bear large imprints in the area of the left scapula and above the right scapula; these show the slant of the patibulum [20%].
  The patibulum was the cross beam of the cross, and the condemned carried the cross beam to the place of crucifixion.

    The right knee appears more contused, with a number of varying excoriations in the region of the patella [the knee cap]. 
  Dirt on the left knee, left eyebrow and left cheek, and damage to the right eyebrow and center of the forehead indicate a series of falls. There is dirt on the tip of the nose. 
  Whenever the Man fell, He could not protect His Face from the fall. Thus the nose was swollen, slightly displaced and bleeding. [10] 

  The eyes of the Man on the Shroud are closed. Watery blood has flowed from the gaping spear wound in his Chest.
  This water and blood had reached His Back by the time He was laid down. This is clear indication that this was the blood of a corpse.
  The blood from the other wounds indicates He received these whilst still alive. [9]

  The faint silhouette of the Figure that we can distinguish between the traces of blood and water and fire damage reveal neither design, contours nor pigment.
  The silhouette rests only on the upper surface of the fibers.
Beneath the blood traces there is no trace of the Image. This has led to the conclusion that blood was first on the weave, and thereafter came the 'luminous projection.'

9. Photographic Negative
  Secondo Pia, a photographer and lawyer, discovered in 1898 as he developed one of the first Shroud photographs, that the Image bore some characteristics of a photographic negative.
  The linen cloth  is not a light-sensitive film, and is centuries older than the first photograph.
  It was through these first 'negative positives' in 1898 that the Turin Shroud became internationally famous. [11]

10. Jerusalem
  Scientific research on the Shroud revealed pollen from plants which blossom in spring time around Jerusalem, as well as dust particular to the streets and alleys of the Holy City. [11]
  Dr Max Frei analysed pollen samples taken from the Oviedo Sudarium cloth, and found species typical of Oviedo, Toledo, North Africa and Jerusalem. This appears to confirm the historical route taken during the travels of the Sudarium over the centuries, once the cloth left the vicinity of Jerusalem. [1]

  The pollen residues on the Turin Shroud and the Sudarium provide evidence that both were at one point in the Palestine area. [6]
  An International Congress was held in Oviedo in 1994, where various papers were presented about the Sudarium.
  Dr Frei's work with pollen was confirmed, and enlarged on.
Species of pollen called 'quercus caliprimus' were found, which are limited to the Palestine area. [1]
  Quercus caliprimus [or Quercus calliprinos], the Palestine oak, is an oak classified as part of the Cerris section of the species. 
  Quercus calliprinos is a small-to medium size tree or large shrub reaching 5-18 m tall [often only 1-3 m tall when heavily browsed by goats] and 1 m trunk in diameter. 
  It is evergreen, with spiny serrated leaves 3-5 cm long and and 1.5-3 cm broad. The acorns are 3-4 cm long and 2-3 cm diameter when mature about 18 months after pollination, held in a cup covered in dense, elongated, reflexed scales. [12]

  Residues of probable myrrh and aloe have also been discovered on the Sudarium. This would correlate with the Gospel of St John 19;39-40.  "Nicodemus came as well, and he brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes . . . They took the Body of Jesus and bound it in linen cloths with the spices, following the Jewish burial custom."
  Nicodemus brought the myrrh and aloes - some accounts say a hundred pounds - so that Jesus' Body could be wrapped with the spices in the linen in accordance with Jewish burial custom.
  Herodotus, the Greek historian, states that aloe wood at one time was worth its weight in gold, Nicodemus' contribution represented a considerable outlay of money on his part. 
  The quantity is clearly much more than could have been placed in the linen which surrounded the Body, but the offering was one of love. Part of it may have been placed in the sepulchre.
  The enormous quantity of aloes and myrrh, a costly offering, has been accounted for as a rich man's expression of devotion.

  It is possible that the heavy load of myrrh and aloes was carried in more than one container. Nicodemus may already have had it in his possession.
  It appears logical that the mixture would have been put into the shroud enveloping the Body of Jesus. The mixture of aloes and myrrh would mask the odor of putrefaction in the tomb. [13]

  The bloodstains on the Sudarium were also examined from the anthropological point of view. The conclusion was that the Face that had been in contact with the Sudarium had typically Jewish features, a prominent nose and pronounced cheekbones.

End of Part One. See the next blog post for Part Two.

Veil of Manoppello. Photograph by Catherine Nicolette
Veil superimposed on Shroud

[1]  Guscin, Mark; B.A.M.Phil. 1997. The Sudarium of Oviedo; Its History and Relationship to the Shroud of Turin. 

[2]  Shroud of Turin; Rh Negative or Rh Positive?


[4]  Your AB+ Blood is Important

[5]  A Tale of Cloths in Three Places - Turin, Oviedo and Manopello. 12th July 2009. 

[6]  The Volto Santo of Manoppello


[8]  Badde, Paul & Christiana-Verlag. 2015. Jesus in His burial cloths. Page 22.; Germany

[9]  Badde, Paul & Christiana-Verlag. 2015. Jesus in His burial cloths. pp 6-7.; Germany

[10] James, Stephen E. 2015. The Shroud of Turin. 

[11] Badde, Paul & Christiana-Verlag. 2015. Jesus in His burial cloths. Page 12.; Germany

[12] Quercus calliprinos. Wikipedia. 2015.

[13] Gaudiano, Anthony V. Spices, Myrrh and Aloes. 2007.

With thanks to; Youtube 


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