Saturday, January 23, 2016


Superimposed Veil of Manoppello on shroud of Turin

Our Lady by Luke




Objectives; By the end of this Module you should;
  • Know about the Resurrection of the Son of God, Jesus Christ
  • Have knowledge about the archeological and scientific evidence afforded by the burial cloths of Jesus
  • Understand the importance of the Resurrection for global, eternal and spiritual history
  • Be able to preach about the Resurrection


The Resurrection of the Son of God
1.   Sudarium of Oviedo; the Head Cloth
2.   Palestine to Toledo 
3.   Cave of Monsacro 
4.   Analysis of Sudarium
5.   Exact fit of stains
6.   Upright Position 
7.   Was Jesus buried with the Sudarium on His Face?
8.   Weave
9.   History of Veil of Manoppello
11. Painting of Mary, Jesus' Mother, by Luke
12. Mary of Nazareth

1. Sudarium of Oviedo; the Head Cloth
  This cloth is held by the Cathedral in Oviedo, Northern Spain.
The cloth measures approximately 84 x 54 cm. 
  No image appears on this cloth. Stains are visible to the naked eye. Tradition claims and scientific studies bear out the claim, that the cloth was used to cover and clean the Face of Jesus after the crucifixion.

  The existence of such a cloth is historically documented in the Gospel of St John, Chapter 20, verses 6 to 7. 
  'Then Simon Peter came along behind him and went straight into the tomb. He saw the strips of linen lying there, as well as the cloth that had been wrapped around Jesus' Head. The cloth was still lying in its place, separate from the linen.'
  The history of the Sudarium is well documented. The twelfth century Bishop of Oviedo Pelagius wrote the historical works, the 'Book of the Testaments of Oviedo,' and the 'Chronicon Regum Legionensium.'

2. Palestine to Toledo 
 According to this history, the Sudarium was in Palestine  until shortly before 614 AD, when Jerusalem was attacked and conquered by Chosroes II, the King of Persia from 590 to 628. 
  The Sudarium was taken away to avoid destruction in the invasion - first to Alexandria by the presbyter Philip, then across the north of Africa when Chosroes conquered Alexandria in 616.
  The Sudarium entered Spain at Cartagena, along with refugees fleeing from the Persians.
  Fulgentius, Bishop of Ecija, welcomed both the refugees and the Sudarium. He transferred the chest [or ark] containing the Sudarium to Leandro, Bishop of Seville.
  Saint Ildefonso eventually became Bishop of Toledo. He took the chest and Sudarium with him from Seville to Toledo, where it stayed until 718.

3. Cave of Monsacro 
 The Sudarium was then taken further north in order to avoid destruction during the conquest of the majority of the Iberian peninsula at the beginning of the eighth century. 
  It was initially kept in a cave now called Monsacro, ten km from Oviedo. King Alfonso II built a special chapel, the 'Cámara Santa' to house the chest. This Chapel was later incorporated into the Cathedral. 

  The chest containing the Sudarium was officially opened on 14th March 1075 in the presence of King Alfonso VI, his siter Dona Urraca and Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar [also known as El Cid].
  The chest was covered with silver plating in 1113 AD. An inscription inviting veneration of the relic containing the Holy Blood is on the chest.
  The Sudarium has been in the Oviedo Cathedral ever since. [1]

4. Analysis of Sudarium
  The investigations carried out on the Sudarium were undertaken by the Investivation Team of the Spanish Centre for Sindonology, under the leadership of Guillermo Heras. The medical part of the investigation was carried out by Dr Jose Villalain. [1]

  The Sudarium is a piece of linen stained with blood and bodily fluids. Jewish belief is that the human soul is carried in the blood.
  When someone suffered a violent death in Jesus' time, a sudarium would have been wrapped around the face to catch the blood.

  The Oviedo Sudarium bears a pattern of stains similar to that of the Shroud, and chemical analysis has revealed that the blood on the Sudarium matches the blood on the Turin shroud.
  When the Oviedo Sudarium is compared to the Turin Shroud, the length of the nose through which the pleural oedoema fluid came onto the Sudarium  has been calculated at eight centimeters, just over three inches. This is exactly the same length as the nose on the Shroud Image. [1]
 Pleural fluid would have been caused through the crucifixion process. [2]

5. Exact fit of stains  
The Shroud and Sudarium show the exact fit of the stains with the beard on the Face. As the Sudarium was used to clean the Face, it appears that the cloth was simply placed on the Face to absorb the blood. No wiping movement was used.
  A small stain proceeding from the right hand side of the Man's Mouth is visible on the Sudarium. The stain is faint on the Shroud, however Dr John Jackson - using the VP-8 and photo enhancements - has confirmed its presence.
  Thorn wounds on the nape of the neck also perfectly match the Shroud bloodstains. [1]

  The stains on the Sudarium show that when the cloth was placed on the dead Man's Face, it was folded over - but not in the middle. A count of both sides of the cloth show a fourfold stain in a logical order of decreasing intensity. [1]

  The central stain was formed by a body hanging in an upright position with outstretched arms. The Head was leaned to the right and slightly forwards. The Sudarium was first pinned to the back of the Head. Pin holes are extant in the Sudarium that show where it was pinned into the Hair.

  The cloth was then brought around to the front. The concept was to wrap the cloth entirely around the head, but the right Cheek was almost touching the Right Arm. [3]
  This suggests that the Sudarium was put into place while the Body was still on the cross. [1]

  The Sudarium was then folded back on itself in the first position: liquid seeped out through the cloth, causing groups of parallel stains.
  The Body was still alive when blood came out on the back of the Head; it seeped through the cloth after death.
  When the Sudarium is overlaid onto the same area of the Shroud, the actual shape of the stains fits perfectly.

  The Sudarium does not have the detail of the Shroud. Yet Gascon believes that the Sudarium bears the Image of a Man's Face.
  The stain that corresponds to the beard area belongs to a bearded Male. [3]

6. Upright Position  
From the composition of the main stains, it is clear that the Man Whose Face the Sudarium covered died in upright position.
  The stains consist of one part blood and six parts fluid from pleural oedoema.
  This liquid collects in the lungs when a crucified person dies of asphyxiation. If the body thereafter suffers jolting movements, the liquid can come out of the nostrils. These main stains are visible on the Sudarium.

  The nasal area stains are superimposed on each other, with the different outlines clearly visible.
  This means that the first stain had already dried when the second stain was formed, and so on.

  After the Sudarium was wrapped and pinned on the Head, it is thought the Body was still on the cross.
  The second stain was made about an hour later, when the Body was taken down. The third stain was made when the Body was lifted from the ground about forty-five minutes later.
  The Body was lying at the foot of the cross for about forty-five minutes before being buried in the new and yet unused tomb of Joseph of Arimathea.
  The marks [not fingerprints] of the fingers that held the cloth to the Nose are also visible. [1]

  Scientific research has shown that when the Man died His Head was tilted seventy degrees forward, and twenty degrees to the right. This position further suggests that the Man Whose Face the Sudarium covered was crucified.

  There are smaller bloodstains at the side of the main group of stains on the Sudarium. It appears that these spots of blood were from small sharp objects; which would logically be the thorns that caused this type of injury all over Jesus' Head.

7. Was Jesus buried with the Sudarium on His Face?
  In a word, no. The Resurrection marks are on the Shroud and the Veil.  The Sudarium itself has no Image, and none of the facial stains of either dried or drying blood so visible on the Shroud, especially the marked stain on the forehead in an inverted three shape.
  The Sudarium stains were caused by a less viscous - possibly more pleural - mixture.

  This, together with the fact that the fingers which held the Sudarium to Jesus' Nose and left their mark - point to a short term use of the cloth.

  Jewish tradition guided that if a dead person's face was disfigured, it should be covered with a cloth to avoid people seeing the unpleasant sight.
  This would certainly tie in with the battered Visage and Body of Jesus after all His Sufferings.

  So; the Sudarium was probably used before the dead Body of Jesus was taken down from the cross, and discarded in the tomb.   Then the golden colored byssus [sign of Pharoahs, Emperors and Kings] was placed on Jesus' Face and His naked Body wrapped in the Shroud.
  This fits in with the witness account of John in His Gospel, which tells us the Sudarium was rolled up in a place by itself. [1]

8. Weave
  A leading authority on historic textiles, Flurry Lamber, was reportedly called upon to restore the Shroud.
  She noted the distinct celling style of the Shroud. Lamber had only seen such a weave once before, in textiles discovered amid the ruins of Masada on the Dead Sea Coast.
  The Masada cloths were dated to within 70 years of Christ's Birth. [3]  
  The most important physical evidence of a connection between the Shroud and Sudarium is that the cloth of the material is the same; there are differences in the manner of weaving, and the blood on both relics are from the same Person. [4]

  The Shroud of Turin [the cloth in which Jesus was buried] was a burial sheet or winding cloth. This traditionally was the cloth in which Jews were dressed in for burial.
  Burial shrouds are usually made of white cotton, wool or linen. This traditional clothing is known as tahrihim, simple white shrouds. Their use dates back to Rabbi Simeon Ben Gamliel II, who, in the second century CE, asked to be buried in simple inexpensive linen garments. 
  According to the Talmud, Rabban Gamliel observed that the custom of dressing the deceased in expensive clothing put a burden on the relatives of the deceased. [5]

9. History of Veil of Manoppello
  It appears that the Volto Santo is the famed 'Veil of Veronica.'
As proven by a medieval text, 'Veronica' was used in the 13th century as a designation for a relic venerated in Rome as the true Image of Jesus.
  As the Latin word for 'true' or 'authentic' is vera, the theory emerged that the name itself is derived from the Latin phrase 'true image', vera icon. [One Latin word for image is icon, derived from Greek; εικόναeikona.] [6]

  The Volto Santo or Veil of veronica was believed to have been kept in the old St Peter's Basilica until 1608 AD. Pilgrims venerated the Image. [4]
  The Veil disappeared in May 1527 during the Sacco di Roma 
[the Sacking of Rome], as publicly affirmed by Dr Antonio Paolucci, Head of the Vatican Museum, in July 2011. [7]

  The Veil surfaced again in 1506 AD, when an unknown stranger brought the Veil to Manoppello and gave it to Doctor Giacomo Antonio Leonelli.
  The precious Veil was sold to Doctor Donato Antonio De Fabritis who placed the Image in a walnut frame adorned with silver and gold between two plates of glass.
  He presented the Veil to the Capuchins in 1638 AD, as recorded in 1640 AD by Padre Donato from Bomba. [4]

10. Christian Art 
 Christian artists used the physiognomy of the Volto Santo as the blueprint for their icons, artwork and sculptures. Studies have been carried out which clearly show that the measurements of the Face and Figure used in icons and sculptures were based exactly on that of the Veil of Manoppello and the Shroud of Turin. 
  A clear example is given by Josef Läufer; the Icon in Katherinenkl. ca 550 AD, corresponds exactly to the measurements of the Veil of Manoppello. When the Veil is superimposed upon the icon, it is the very same. [8]

11. Painting of Mary, Jesus' Mother, by Luke
  The image of Mary as painted by Luke was carried by St Thomas the Apostle to India. The painting is kept at the main altar in the Church of Mount St Thomas in Madras, India, the place where Thomas was martyred.
  This image bears clear resemblance to the Shroud of Turin and the Veil of Manoppello. 
  The same long face, long nose; strikingly similar eyes and ear alignment. The hair has the same upward peak in the mid forehead. Mary's eyebrows - more slender than that of Jesus - appear in similar arch on the brow bone. 
  The picture can be viewed at the following link;

12. Mary of Nazareth
  Mary, the Mother of Jesus, is believed to have treasured the burial cloths of her Son.
  Tradition tells us she kept them close to her up to the year of her death [about 50 AD].
  Mary loved the very fine and easily held veil with the Face of Her Beloved Son. [9]

  An old Georgian manuscript tells us that after the Ascension of Christ, Mary guarded the Image of her Son that had formed on the burial cloths.
  She kept the Image always with her so she could gaze on the Face of her Son.
  Every time that she wished to venerate, she would face eastwards and, unfolding the Image, she would pray in front of it - contemplating her dearly beloved Son.
  When Mary was dying, the Apostles laid her on a bier. Mary looked upon the Image of the Face of her Son as she prepared to complete her lifespan on earth. [10] 

13. Are the burial cloths true Images of Jesus?
  A forensic, archeological and scientific approach has been used in examining the veracity of the burial cloths.
  The following has been noted.

  • Exact superimposition evidence
  • Same AB + blood type
  • Corresponding bloodstains
  • Wounds and signs of crucifixional death accurately corresponding to the accounts of eyewitnesses in the Gospels
  • Scientific evidence bearing out historical documentation of the gospels
  • Pollen evidence
  • Textile weave evidence
  • Aromatic resin [myrrh] and Aloe evidence
  • Historic documentation
  • Gospel eyewitness accounts
The reality of the Crucifixion and Resurrection of the Son of GOD Jesus Christ is not only left to faith.
  Quantifiable and tangible evidence has been left post-Resurrection that indeed, the flashpoint of the change of all history left behind indelible marks upon textile and weave.

Rev Catherine

[1]  Guscin, Mark; B.A.M.Phil. 1997. The Sudarium of Oviedo; Its History and Relationship to the Shroud of Turin. 

[2]  Geberth, Vernon J, MS, MPS, P.H.I. Investigative Consultants, Inc. 2008. State Sponsored Torture in Rome: A Forensic Inquiry and and Medicolegal Analysis of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ


[4]  The Volto Santo of Manoppello

[5] Cryer, AB. 2016. Shroud Explained.

[6] Saint Veronica

[7] Badde, Paul & Christiana-Verlag. 2015. Jesus in His burial cloths. Page 25.; Germany

[8] Volto Santo - Ikonenverständnis

[9]  Badde, Paul & Christiana-Verlag. 2015. Jesus in His burial cloths. Page 26.; Germany

[10] Nouveaux apocryphes de la Dormition conserves en georgien "Analecta Bollandiena", 90. 1972. Pages 363-369. Dormition de la Vierge

With thanks to Youtube, Analecta Bollandiena

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